Ashley, though, posted on her Instagram on Tuesday that Peterson never got physical with her ... saying, "At no point did Adrian hit or strike me."
"Adrian and I had a verbal argument," she added. "Unfortunately, it was on an airplane."
She continued, "This is a private matter between my husband and myself. We ask that everyone respect our privacy so we can focus on what matters most: our children."
For his part, Peterson -- who was booked on a charge of felony domestic violence -- has also denied hitting Ashley ... telling FOX 26 Sports this week that the mark on Ashley was the result of him taking a ring off her finger during their argument.
"Literally that's why I went to jail," Peterson said. "Because the ring left a scratch on her finger."