Muhammad tells TMZ Sports ... there was no major damage to the eyeball, "just a really bad scratched cornea and the lid."
Belal says he got stitches -- but they're expected to come out within 5 to 7 days.
But, Muhammad isn't mad about the injury -- he's pissed he didn't get the chance to showcase his skills for 5 rounds against the #3 ranked welterweight ... a fight that could have been HUGE for his career.
Now, Edwards -- who won the 1st round on all 3 of the judges' scorecards -- is publicly saying he's not interested in a rematch and would rather have a title shot ASAP.
Muhammad says that's total BS -- telling us he took the fight on 3 weeks' notice and deserves another shot at a main event fight with Edwards.
"If you're a man -- if you're a real contender -- if you think you're a real champion, you've gotta beat everybody. So, you gotta beat me and then earn your title shot."
Muhammad continues, "You think you earned a title shot off a no contest? That's like the stupidest thing I've ever heard."
"You don't deserve a title shot, you deserve another rematch."
Muhammad says he was "just getting warmed up" when the eye poke happened -- and he's convinced he would've earned the "W" had it not happened.
"For you to be happy after 1 round, that just shows how pathetic you are and weak-minded you are … and it shows to me that I was gonna break you."